Altera FLEX Logic Array Block Altera FLEX Carry Chain. (Example: n-bit adder). Figure from. Altera . FLEX 10K chip contains 72– LABs. ALTERA FLEX 10K SERIES CPLDs NOTES. ?id= 0B0p4VmLqkbgdaW5DalFpSldZeE0. Posted by sanju sonu at. CPLD. Each logic block is similar to a. 22V Programmable interconnect matrix. . SSTL – Stub Series-Terminate Logic Altera Flex 10K FPGA Family (cont).

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Skip to main content. Log In Sign Up. Unlike previous generations of hardware technology in which This tutorial surveys commercially Evolution of FPDs board level designs included large available, high-capacity field- The first user-programmable numbers of SSI small-scale inte- programmable devices.

The chip that could implement logic cir- gration chips containing basic authors describe the three main cuits was the programmable read- gates, virtually every digital design only memory PROMin which categories of FPDs: This is true complex programmable logic inputs and data lines as outputs. They then give quire more than a few product of logic circuits such as state ma- architectural details of the most terms, and a PROM contains a full chine controllers, counters, regis- important chips and example decoder for its address inputs.

When such PROMs are thus inefficient for real- applications of each type of circuits are destined for high-vol- izing logic circuits, so designers ume systems, designers integrate device.

The first device developed However, aletra high nonrecurring specifically for implementing log- engineering costs and long manufac- The FPD market has grown over the ic circuits was the field-programmable turing time of gate arrays make them past decade to the point where there is logic array, or simply PLA for short.

A unsuitable for prototyping or other low- now a wide felx of devices to PLA consists of two levels of logic gates: Therefore, most pro- choose from. To choose a product, de- a programmable, wired-AND plane fol- totypes and many production designs signers face the daunting task of re- lowed by a programmable, wired OR now use FPDs. The most compelling searching the best uses of the various plane. Adding to the ANDed together in the AND plane; each the end user programs the device, cplvs is the complexity of the more AND plane output can thus correspond quick manufacturing turnaround and sophisticated devices.

To help sort out to any product term of the inputs. FPGA field-programmable gate array: With this rower logic resources. They are also quite and FPGAs. We do not use this term here. Both tional gate array. Thus, we can refer to logic capacity as the els of configurable logic; programma- number of two-input NAND gates. PLA structures are sometimes embedded into full-custom chips, we refer As Figure alera shows, PALs feature only a here only to user-programmable PLAs provided as separate integrated cir- single level of programmability—a pro- cuits.

To compensate element to an interconnect wire or one interconnect wire to another. For combinational circuits, it is set by the longest delay through with different numbers of inputs and any path, and for sequential circuits, it is the maximum clock frequency outputs and various sizes of OR gates. The introduction of PAL devices pro- tectures that we will describe shortly. FPDs, including PLAs, PALs, and PAL- foundly affected digital hardware de- Variants of the basic PAL architecture like devices, into the single category of sign, and they are the basis of some of appear in several products known by simple programmable-logic devices the newer, more sophisticated archi- various acronyms.

FLEX 10K Device Block Diagram – SDJ

Figure 2 shows a typical FPGA architecture. Figure 3 illustrates the logic capaci- ties available in each FPD category. Cpds, as 20, ber of inputs increases. There are also 2, to programmably interconnnect multi- special-purpose devices optimized for 1, ple SPLDs on a single serids. Many FPD specific applications for example, state products on the market rlex have this machines, analog gate arrays, large in- basic structure and are known as com- terconnection problems.


Since such plex programmable-logic devices. CPLDs provide logic capaci- first user-programmable switch devel- ty up to the equivalent of about 50 typi- oped was the fuse used in PLAs.

Building FPDs with very high logic cause newer technology is quickly re- acteristics are low cost and very high capacity requires alterw different approach.

For higher density pin-to-pin speed performance. The highest capacity alteta devices, CMOS dominates the IC in- Advances in technology have pro- logic chips available today are the tra- dustry, and different approaches to im- duced devices with higher seires ditional gate arrays sometimes referred plementing programmable switches are than SPLDs.

The difficulty with increas- to as mask-programmable gate arrays. Summary of FPD programming technologies. Table 1 lists the most impor- tant characteristics of these program- ming technologies. For inputs not involved Logic block in a product term, the appropriate EPROM transistors are programmed as permanently turned off.

The example of controlled by SRAM cells. Whether an tifuse structure. Unpro- of multiplexers that drive logic block in- that take on low resistance only when grammed, the insulator isolates the top puts. The figure shows the connection programmed. Antifuses are manufac- and bottom layers; programmed, the in- of one logic block represented by the tured using modified CMOS technolo- sulator becomes a low-resistance link. Commercially available FPDs as conductors and a custom-developed Since initial logic entry is not usually in This overview seeies examples of compound, ONO oxide-nitride-ox- an optimized form, the system applies commercial FPD products and their ap- ide ,1 as an insulator.

Other antifuses algorithms to seriee the circuits. We encourage readers in- rely on metal for conductors, with Then additional algorithms analyze the terested in more details to contact the amorphous silicon as the middle lay- resulting logic equations and fit them manufacturers or distributors for the lat- er.

Simulation verifies cor- est data sheets.

Wide Web at http: Such software unit alera configure an SPLD. They have the highest speed per- ware for the following tasks: Because they are straight- fitting, simulation, and configuration. CAD tools are more sophisticated.

Both of these de- sign in a simple hardware description a circuit. Similarly, the 22V10 has a max- block PIA fex of 22 inputs and ten outputs.

The V means versatile—that is, each output can be registered or combinational. Altera Max series architecture.

FPGA and CPLD Architectures: A Tutorial | Mohammad Ali Mirzaei –

Many other SPLD products are avail- able from a wide array of companies. Altera has developed three families of CPLD chips: MaxFigure 9. Altera Max logic array block. We focus on the series because of its wide use and state- of-the-art logic capacity and speed per- tecture of the Altera Max series. It and outputs connect directly to the PIA formance. Max represents an older consists of an array of logic array blocks and to logic array blocks.

A logic array technology that offers a cost-effective and a set of interconnect wires called a block is a complex, SPLD-like structure, solution; Max is similar to Max programmable interconnect array and so we can consider the entire chip but offers higher logic capacity PIA. Mach 1 and 2 consist of opti- Figure All connections between PAL-like Figure AMD Mach 4 structure. Thus, the device is not merely a consists of two sets of eight macrocells Any or all of the five product terms in collection of PAL-like blocks but a sin- shown in Figure flrx A macrocell is a the macrocell can feed the OR gate, gle, large device.

Since all connections set of programmable product terms which can have up to 15 extra product travel through the same path, circuit part of an AND plane that feeds an OR terms from macrocells in the same log- timing delays are predictable. The flip-flops can ic array block. It has 16 outputs and a total of 34 ent. As Figure 10 shows, the product se- efficient in chip area than classic SPLDs, inputs 16 of which are the fed-back out- lect matrix allows a variable number of because typical logic functions need no putsso it corresponds to a 34V16 PAL.


These fea- tures make a Mach 4 chip easier to use because they decouple sections of the 16 PAL-like block. More specifically, the Input switch 16 product term allocator distributes and matrix shares product terms from the AND PAL-like block plane to OR gates that require them, al- seies much more flexibility than the Figure Mach 4 34V16 PAL-like block.

Lattice offers allocator a complete range of CPLDs, with two main product lines: Each chip consists of a collection of SPLD- like blocks and a global routing pool to delays. Compared with the chips dis- small PAL-like blocks consisting of an serjes the blocks. Logic capacity cussed so far, the functionality of the AND plane, a product term allocator, ranges from about seriees, to 4, gates, series is most similar to that of the and macrocells.

The global routing and pin-to-pin delays are 10 ns. Unlike the other Lattice CPLDs, pool is a set of wires that span the chip also offers the series—relatively the series offers enhancements to to connect generic logic block inputs small CPLDs with between and support more recent design styles, such and outputs.

All interconnects pass 2, gates. This capability is an- flip-flop, other type of flexibility fle in PAL- tristate buffer like blocks but not in normal PALs. Unlike those a in other CPLDs, a macrocell includes two OR gates, each of which becomes an input for a 2-bit arithmetic logic unit.

FLEX 10K Device Block Diagram

Xilinx also Clock has announced a new CPLD family, the Data out XC, which will alterw in-circuit pro- b c grammability with 5-ns pin-to-pin delays and up to 6, logic gates.

Figure 15a illustrates the pin-to-pin delays. The Flashs are not macrocells and pins.

Flashlogic architecture, a collection of in-system programmable. Flip-flops and tristate buffers are still available in the SRAM configuration. Applying power loads Nevertheless, we include them here be- tation.

Finite state machines are an ex- the SRAM cells with a copy of the non- cause they exemplify PLA-based rather cellent example of this class of circuits. The user urable as D, T, or JK, and two multi- ble. Each multiplexer produces a even make it possible to reconfigure ming nonvolatile by writing the SRAM logic cell output, either registered or hardware for example, change a pro- cell contents back to the EPROM cells. An interesting fea- Designs often partition naturally into grammable, electrically-erasable logic ture of the logic cell is that the flip-flop the SPLD-like blocks in a CPLD, pro- Arrays are large PLAs that include logic clock, preset, and clear are full sum-of- ducing more predictable speed perfor- macrocells with flop-flops and feed- product logic functions.

Distinguishing mance than a design split into many back to the logic planes. Figure 16 il- PEEL Arrays from all other CPLDs, small pieces mapped into different ar- lustrates this structure, which consists which simply provide product terms for eas of the chip. Predictability of circuit of a programmable AND plane that these signals, this feature is attractive for implementation is one of the strongest feeds a programmable OR plane.