The Palace of Justice: a Colombian tragedy / Ana Carrigan Carrigan, Ana Author: Carrigan, Ana; Subjects: 20th century.; Palacio de Justicia (Bogotá. Get this from a library! El Palacio de Justicia: una tragedia colombiana. [Ana Carrigan]. Get this from a library! El palacio de justicia: Una tragedia colombiana. [Ana Carrigan; Clorinda Zea; Constanza Vieira].

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Hours later, after a military raid, the incident left almost half of the 25 Supreme Court Justices dead. The military’s role in the siege has been described as a holocaust and massacre by the Inter-American Commission on Human Rights.

On 6 Novemberat Jorge Medina -a witness located in the basement at aa start of the palaco said that “suddenly, the guerrillas entered the basement in a truck.

They opened fire with their machine guns against everyone who was there”. The M lost one guerrilla and a nurse during the initial raid to cwrrigan building. In the meantime many hostages took refuge in empty offices on the first floor, where they hid until around 2 pm. The assailants took people hostage, including the 24 justices jusficia 20 other judges.

Once in the building the first hostage the guerrilla group was asking for was Supreme Court Justice and President of the Constitutional Cargigan, then called Sala ConstitucionalManuel Gaona Cruz[15] who was in charge of delivering the opinion of the court in regards to the constitutionality of the extradition treaty between Colombia and the United States. About three hours after the initial seizure, army troops rescued about hostages [16] from the lower three floors of the courthouse; the surviving gunmen and remaining hostages occupied the upper two floors.

A recording was delivered to a radio station soon after the seizure, saying that the M group had taken over the building “in the name of peace and social justice”. The president refused and ordered an emergency cabinet session.

However, the assault on the Palace of Justice commenced later that morning. After surrounding the building with EE-9 Cascavel armored cars and soldiers with automatic weapons, they stormed the building sometime after 2 pm.

The EE-9s knocked down the building’s massive doorway, and even made some direct hits against the structure’s external walls. The official version of the attack holds that, in an effort to complete one of the two objectives they had assaulted the palace for, the M guerrillas burnt different criminal records containing proof and warrants against many members of the group.

It is also believed, but argued whether they also burnt records against Pablo Escobarone of the nation’s biggest drug traffickers at the time. The results of the tests carried out later by ballistics experts and investigators demonstrated the most likely cause to have been the recoil effect of the army’s rockets.

Tests proved that if fired by a soldier standing within twenty feet of wood-lined walls of the library that housed Colombian legal archives, the intense heat generated by the rocket’s rear blast could have ignited the wooden paneling. In any event, in a shelved area stacked high with old papers, files, books, and newspapers, the quantity of explosives used by the military virtually guaranteed a conflagration.

The fire lasted about 2 days, even with efforts from firemen to try to smother the flames. An investigated theory to the “disappearance” of the missing entities in the siege is that they were charred in the fire, and were not able to be identified in any way, and without having been found, these entities are regarded as missing in action.

This theory is still being studied in the different trials of the case. More than people died during the final assault on the Palace.

After the raid, another Supreme Court justice died in a hospital after suffering a heart attack. The siege of the Palace of Justice and the subsequent raid was one of the deadliest attacks in Colombia in its war with leftist rebels. The M group was still a potent force after the raid, but was severely hampered by the deaths of five of its leaders. In Marchit signed a peace treaty with the government. After the siege, firemen rushed to the site of the assault and smothered the few flames left in the palace.

Other rescue groups assisted with removing debris and rubble left after the siege. President Betancur went on national TV on the night of the 7th, saying he took full responsibility for the “terrible nightmare”; He offered condolences to the families of those who died—civilians and rebels alike—and said he would continue to look for a peaceful solution with the rebels.

Exactly a week later, on 14 November, he would offer condolences for another tragedy: Colombia’s Armed Forces did not have antiterrorist units specifically trained for urban operations before the siege, and some partially blamed the final outcome on the relative inexperience of the personnel assigned to the task.

The twelve magistrates killed were: Shortly after the siege, the U. Author Ana Carriganwho quoted the June report in her book on the siege and originally dismissed any such links between the M and the drug mafia, told Cromos magazine in late that she now believes that the mafia may have financially supported the M Pablo Escobar’s son claimed that while his father did not come up with or plan the raid, he did pay M a million dollars because he “believed in the ideals” of M and “looked for ways to preserve and support them”.

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On the same day of the siege, the Supreme Court’s docket apparently called for the beginning of pending deliberations on the constitutionality of the Colombia-United States extradition treaty. The M was publicly opposed to extradition on nationalist grounds. Several of the magistrates had been previously threatened by drug lords in order to prevent any possibility of a positive decision on the treaty.

One year after the siege, the carrigxn was declared unconstitutional. Congressman Gustavo Petroa former M guerrilla, has denied these accusations and dismissed them as based upon the inconsistent testimonies of drug lords. Petro says that the surviving members of the M do admit to their share of responsibility for the tragic events of the siege, on behalf of the entire organization, but deny any links to the drug carfigan.

Later investigations and commentators have considered both the M and the military as responsible for the deaths of the justices and civilians inside the building. Some have blamed President Belisario Betancur for not taking the necessary actions or for failing to negotiate, and others have commented on the possibility of a sort of de facto “hour coup”, during which the military was in control of the situation.

A Colombian TragedySupreme Court Chief Justice Alfonso Reyes was apparently burned alive during the assault, as someone incinerated his palacoi after pouring gasoline over it. The book also asserts that, after the siege was over, some twenty-eight bodies were dumped into a mass grave and apparently soaked husticia acid, in order to make identification difficult.

Carrigan argued that the bodies of the victims of the Nevado del Ruiz volcano eruption, which buried the city of Armero and killed more than 20, people, were dumped into the same mass grave, making any further forensic investigations impractical.

Despite numerous investigations and lawsuits to date, impunity prevailed for most of the subsequent decades. Ana Carrigan asserted in her book that “Colombia has moved on Colombia has forgotten the Palace of Justice siege”, in much the same way that, in her opinion, Colombians have also forgotten or adopted a position of denial towards other tragic events, such as the Santa Marta Massacre.

No definite responsibility has been fixed on the government or on the surviving members of the M movement who were pardoned after they demobilized. It is suspected [ by whom? Judticia has been speculated [ by whom? Carrigan says Franco was seen by several hostages.

She also states that the guerrilla left with several hostages and was never seen again. One week after the siege, M released a communique to the press claiming that six leaders, including Franco, and “seven other fighters” justiciia all been “disappeared and murdered” by the army.

From the tapes of the military and police inter-communications it is known that army intelligence arrested at least seventeen people in the course of the two-day siege. The events surrounding the Palace of Justice siege received renewed media coverage in Colombia during the 20th anniversary of the tragedy. Among other outlets, the country’s main daily El Tiempothe weekly El Espectadorand the Cromos magazine published several articles, interviews and opinion pieces on the matter, including stories about the survivors, as well as the plight of the victims’ relatives and those of the missing.

The Supreme Court created a Truth Commission in order to investigate the siege. Pslacio Mayformer Col.

He accepted that he could have received the order to cover the exit of some hostages from the Palace of Justice. On July 11,Virginia Vallejothe television anchorwoman who was romantically involved with Pablo Escobar from to and author of “Amando a Pablo, odiando a Escobar” Loving Pablo, Hating Escobar[41] was asked to testify in the reopened case of the siege of the Palace of Justice, in order to confirm events that she had described in her memoir, in the chapter “That Palace in Flames”, in pages to Inretired Colonel Alfonso Plazas Vega was sentenced to 30 years of jail time for his alleged role in forced disappearances after the siege.

He announced his intention of seeking changes to the way military are judged in Colombia and asked for jail time for those he called the “instigators” of the massacre. Nevertheless, Colombia’s General Attorney has declared that crimes against humanity took place during the siege, which has allowed for the continued processing of another colonel and one general involved in the incident.

The Palace of Justice : a Colombian tragedy / Ana Carrigan – Details – Trove

She and her aan had to live under heavy surveillance for the duration of the trial. On December 16, Colonel Plazas Vega was declared innocent in a five to three vote by the Colombian Supreme Court and absolved of his previous 30 year prison sentence. The declaration was influenced by a revisiting of the case in the Supreme Court when the validity of testimonies of 4 witnesses came into question, along with absence of conclusive evidence to prove guilt in the charges brought again Plazas Vega.


Colombian conflict — Two of the most important forces that have contributed to the Colombian conflict are multinational companies and the United States.

The reasons for fighting vary from group to group, the FARC and other guerrilla movements claim to be fighting for the rights of the poor in Colombia to protect them from government violence and to provide social justice through communism. The Colombian government claims to be fighting for order and stability, the paramilitary groups claim to be reacting to perceived threats by guerrilla movements.

Both guerrilla and paramilitary groups have been accused of engaging in drug trafficking, all of the parties engaged in the conflict have been criticized for numerous human rights violations.

However, on October 2, a majority of the Colombian public rejected the deal, in October musticia, Juan Manuel Santos was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize for his efforts to bring the countrys more than year-long civil war to an end. The House of Representatives unanimously approved the plan on November 30, the armed conflict in Colombia emerged due to a combination of economic, political and social factors in the country 60 years ago.

Eventually, the UP distanced itself from insurgent groups, initially, a group of Americans began to smuggle marijuana during the decades of the sixties and seventies. Later, the American Mafia began to establish drug trafficking in Colombia in cooperation with local marijuana producers, cocaine manufactured in Colombia were historically mostly consumed in the US as well as Europe.

Organized crime in Colombia palavio increasingly powerful in the s and 80s with the introduction of drug trafficking to the Juwticia States from Colombia.

Palace of Justice siege

Palxcio funds helped finance paramilitaries and guerrillas, allowing organizations to buy weapons which were then sometimes used to attack military. After the offensive, many security indicators improved, as part of a controversial peace process, the AUC as a formal organization had ceased to function. Colombia achieved a great decrease in production, leading White House drug czar R.

Gil Kerlikowske to announce that Colombia is no longer the worlds biggest producer of cocaine. Colombia — Colombia, officially the Republic of Colombia, is a transcontinental country largely situated in the northwest of South America, with territories in Central America. Colombia shares a border to the northwest with Panama, to the east with Venezuela and Brazil and to the south with Ecuador and it shares its maritime limits with Costa Rica, Nicaragua, Justiciq, Jamaica, Haiti and the Dominican Republic.

It is a unitary, constitutional republic comprising thirty-two departments, the territory of what is now Colombia was originally inhabited by indigenous peoples including the Muisca, uusticia Quimbaya and the Tairona. The Spanish arrived in and initiated a period of conquest and colonization ultimately creating the Viceroyalty of New Granada, independence from Spain was won inbut by the Gran Colombia Federation was justticia.

What is now Colombia and Panama emerged as the Republic of New Granada, the new nation experimented with federalism as the Granadine Confederation, and then the United States of Colombia, before the Republic of Colombia was finally declared in Since the s the country has suffered from an asymmetric justiccia armed conflict, Colombia is one of the most ethnically and linguistically diverse countries in the world, and thereby possesses a rich cultural heritage.

Cultural diversity has also influenced by Colombias varied geography. The urban centres are located in the highlands of the Andes mountains. Colombian territory also encompasses Amazon rainforest, tropical grassland and both Caribbean and Pacific coastlines, ecologically, it is one of the worlds 17 megadiverse countries, and the palacioo densely biodiverse of these per square kilometer.

Colombia has an economy with macroeconomic stability and favorable growth prospects in the long run. The name Colombia is derived from jjsticia last name of Christopher Columbus and it was conceived by the Venezuelan revolutionary Francisco de Miranda as a reference to all the New World, but especially to those portions under Spanish and Portuguese rule. The name was adopted by the Republic of Colombia of When Venezuela, Ecuador and Cundinamarca came to exist as independent states, New Granada officially changed its name in to the Granadine Confederation.

In the name was changed, this time to United States of Colombia. To refer to country, the Colombian government uses palafio terms Colombia. These sites date from the Paleoindian period, at Puerto Hormiga and other sites, traces from the Archaic Carrkgan have been found.