Clinical Pathway: Tetralogy of Fallot (TOF) Repair. Notes: (1) This pathway is a general guideline and variations can occur based on professional judgment. ASKEP PADA EMBOLI PARU. ASUHAN KEPERAWATAN PADA ANAK DENGAN TETRALOGI FALLOT · Farida A. Soetedjo Bag. Ilmu Penyakit Dalam FK. askep anemia pada anak pdf printer. Quote. Postby Just» Tue Aug 28, 20 am. Looking for askep anemia pada anak pdf printer. Will be grateful for any.

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Kami berharap bahwa Anda menikmati presentasi ini. Untuk men-downloadsilahkan rekomendasi askdp ini kepada teman-teman Anda dalam jaringan sosial. Tombol yang haris diklik terletak di bawah posting ini. Diterbitkan oleh Yanti Yenny Hermanto Telah diubah “3 tahun yang lalu. After traveling to the lung, large thrombi can lodge at the bifurcation of the main pulmonary artery or the lobar branches and cause hemodynamic compromise.

Smaller thrombi typically travel more distally, occluding smaller vessels in the lung periphery. These are more likely to produce pleuritic chest pain by falllot an inflammatory response adjacent to the parietal pleura. Most pulmonary emboli are multiple, and the lower lobes are involved more commonly than the upper lobes.

Factor V Leiden mutation causing resistance to activated protein C is the most common risk factor. Primary or acquired deficiencies in protein C, protein S, and antithrombin III are other risk factors.

The risk of pulmonary embolism increases with prolonged bed rest or immobilization of a limb in a cast. Immobilization usually because of surgery was the risk factor most commonly found in patients with pulmonary embolism. Arterial hypoxemia is a frequent, but not universal, finding in patients with acute embolism.

Pulmonary infarction is an uncommon consequence because of the bronchial arterial collateral circulation. Hemodynamic consequences Pulmonary embolism reduces the cross-sectional area luas penampang of the pulmonary vascular bed, resulting in an increment kenaikan in pulmonary vascular resistance, which, in turn, increases the right ventricular afterload.


If the afterload is increased severely, right ventricular failure may ensue. Anxiety related to change in health status. Normal arterial blood gases ABGsPulse oximetry results within normal range, Usual mental status, Normal respiration rate. Gas exchange; Respiratory status: Assess lung sounds, noting areas of decreased ventilation and the presence of adventitious sounds. Assess for signs and symptoms of hypoxemia: Assess for signs or symptoms of pulmonary infarction: Assess for changes in orientation and behavior.

Monitor arterial blood gases ABGs and note changes. Use pulse oximetry to monitor O2 saturation and pulse rate continuously Assess skin color for development of cyanosis.

Ppt – Tetralogy of Fallot

Use upright, high Fowler’s position whenever possible. Pace activities and schedule rest periods to prevent fatigue Encourage deep breathing, using incentive spirometer as indicated. Administer medications as prescribed. Note skin color and feel temperature of the skin Monitor peripheral pulses.

Note the decrease in pulse Check capillary refill. Patients with history of peptic ulcer disease, alcoholism, kidney or liver disease, and the elderly are at greatest risk for bleeding Monitor vital signs. Increase in heart rate accompanied by low blood pressure or subnormal temperature may signal bleeding.

Monitor CBC in female patients who are menstruating. Anticoagulation may cause excessive blood loss during menses. Evaluation Evaluate effectiveness of drug therapy by confirming that the patient goals and expected outcomes have been met.

Sudden onset of dyspnea. Severe anxiety, restlessness, irritability. Tachycardia Orthopnea Paroxysmal nocturnal dyspnea Distended Jugular veins Wheezing Noisy, wet respirations that do not clear with coughing.

Cough with Frothy, blood-tinged sputum. Impaired gas exchange related to excess fluid in the lungs. Ineffective tissue perfusion related to decreased cardiac muscle contractility. Anxiety related to sensation of suffocation and fear. Airway Patency Respiratory Status: Suction airway as needed to maintain patent airways. Assist patient with ADLs as needed to conserve energy and avoid overexertion.


Cor pulmonal dapat bersifat akut akibat emboli paru yang pasif, dapat juga kronis. Penyakit vaskuler paru, emboli paru.

Demands on the RV may be intensified by increased blood viscosity due to hypoxia-induced polycythemia. Rarely, RV failure affects the LV if a dysfunctional septum bulges into the LV, interfering with filling and thus causing diastolic dysfunction. Effectiveness; Circulation status; Tissue perfusion: Cardiac care; Circulatory care: Assess skin color and temperature.

Assess fluid balance and weight gain. Assess heart sounds, noting gallops, S3, S4. S3 denotes reduced left ventricular ejection and is a classic sign of left ventricular failure. Determine any occurrence of paroxysmal nocturnal dyspnea PND or orthopnea. Monitor continuous ECG as appropriate.

Assess response to increased activity. Assess for chest pain. Maintain optimal fluid balance. Maintain hemodynamic parameters at prescribed levels. Administer humidified oxygen as ordered. Maintain physical and emotional rest, as in the following: This reduces oxygen demands.

Emotional stress increases cardiac demands. This allows rest periods. The patient is admitted for dyspnea. You place the patient on 2L nasal cannula. The patient states she does not wear any oxygen at home.

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Ppt – Tetralogy of Fallot

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