Jacob Kounin is known for two studies regarding classroom management in the ‘s. His book, Discipline and Group Management in Classrooms, outside of the group may be having so that instruction may continue. Jacob Kounin () [Group Management]. Jacob Kounin, author of Discipline and Group Management in Classrooms developed a theory focused on. Best known for his two studies done in ○ He wrote the book, “Discipline and Group. Management in Classrooms”. ○ Kounin worked to combine both.

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His best-known work was done in the s, where he conducted two major case studies. From educational psychologist to a well-known theorist today, Kounin brought a novel idea that incorporated both the instructional and disciplinary aspects of the classroom together. Before this happened, most educators viewed their role as a straight-forward passing on of skills and knowledge to their kounnin.

He watched as the correction of one student behavior actually spread to other students engaging in inappropriate behaviors, and resulted in a much more ordered room. This first observation led Kounin to conduct experiments over 5 years with students from all levels, but later Kounin changed his focus managemeent seeing how teachers actually prepared or proactively managed their classrooms before behavior occurred. He noticed how the reactions of teachers to students affected classroom management in a negative way.

He learned that teachers were always receiving similar responses from their students no matter how they reacted to misbehavior in the classroom.

From this observation, he concluded that there must be something a teacher could do to prevent misbehavior in the first place, which would lead to more effective classroom management. He believed that in insstructional for a teacher to have an effective connection between management and teaching, there needed to be good Lesson Movement.

This Lesson Movement is achieved through withitness, overlapping, momentum, smoothness, and group focus. This can be as simple jackb making scanning looks around the room every once in awhile. Kounin said that is was not necessary for the teacher to know what is going on, but for the students to perceive that the teacher knows. Overlapping is the ability for a teacher to in a word, multi-task. Being able to present a new topic while preventing misbehaviors is essential for a teacher.

The concept of overlapping ties into the idea of withitness as well. Momentum is the flow of a lesson. An example of this would be a student late for the class interrupts or technology that is being used goes wrong. Smoothness is also highly related to momentum.

Classroom Management Theorists and Theories/Jacob Kounin

Being able to keep on track without getting knstructional tangents as well as being diverted by irrelevant questions or information is important. Many times, a teacher can get distracted manageemnt leave a topic open and not come back to it until later, which can be confusing to students.

Another instructiobal that can ruin smoothness is when a teacher does not have a plan or course of action, it can seem as though the lecture is jumping from one topic to the next. The final aspect that results in Lesson Movement and effective teaching manaegment integrating management and learning is group focus.

Group focus is the ability of a teacher to engage the whole class using techniques such as building suspense or asking community questions. This can also look like asking random questions, or asking a student a question and then looking around at other students to see if they are thinking or ready to respond. These instrucrional the main theories and history of Jacob Kounin. The teacher is responsible for inhibiting poor behavior. The teacher can maintain this strategy by making eye contact to all manaegment at all times.


The teacher should know each student on a personal basis i. The instruxtional can use other non-verbal techniques to show students that they are alert and care about the well-being of all students. The teacher may also want to make a respectable suggestion to inform the student that their behavior is unacceptable. The teacher should have communicated to all students the expectations and can have these displayed so everyone can be “with-it”.

The teacher can have procedures that will allow the teacher to be effective when two situations occur at the same time. For example, if a student is done with an assessment or an assignment early have something for them to do such as moving on to another assignment, reading a book, or a quiet enrichment exercise.

While the early-finishers are staying busy the teacher is allowed to move around the room to answer question or assist struggling students. Another example, if the teacher is in the middle of a lecture and a student instrucfional the room the teacher should make eye contact with the student, have an area for the student to turn in work, and continue with the lesson.

Once the students are doing their work the teacher can go amnagement the tardy student and tell them what they missed or answer any questions from the homework assigned the night before. The teacher should make lectures short to allow students to group together and move around to gain more knowledge of the content. The teacher should make sure that these exercises remain short so students do not get bored. A teacher can keep a timer and assign roles to students to keep the students moving and on a time deadline.


If students are struggling the teacher can reflect on what they can do to make the lesson more meaningful and easier to understand for their students. The teacher can have students make hand gestures, that will tell the teacher whether the student has a comment mamagement question concerning the lesson.

This technique allows the teacher to have an idea about those students who may cause an unwanted tangent and those who may have a good question, pertaining mnagement utilise the time effectively. When placing students in group-work, the teacher can walk around facilitating and listening to discussions of other students.

The teacher can then intervene or take the group to a different track if required.

Exploring the Theories of Instructional Management: Jacob Kounin by Casey Wun on Prezi

Make students aware that they will be graded for their participation and contributions to the group. The teacher kacob have a canister of popsicle sticks that have each students instructionl on them. The students can facilitate a discussion. Once they have finished a task they can turn to each other or they could pair up with those who are already done and compare answers. In order for implementation to be effective the teacher must be well organized, communicate their expectations to their students, and hold them responsible for their actions to encourage motivation and attention.

In an elementary setting, the teacher could pair up the class in groups of students and assign a team name. The teacher could have a visual of a pocket chart to show where that group will be during the time granted.


For example, a pink card for Suzy, Bobbie, and Billy could stand for the Phonics station.

A green card could innstructional for Lizzy, Gary, and Greg to be at the Math station. The time could be set for 30 minutes. Once the timer has elapsed the students would be instructed of how to rotate.

The teacher must not remain idle at any time. The teacher should make each center as kinestethic as possible with many manipulatives at each station i. Magnetic letters for spelling center, dice or play money for Math, etc. It is very important that elementary instructors maintain their energy and enthusiasm when presenting to their students.

Kounin’s theories are very useful in a Middle School setting. The first two terms he uses, “With-it-ness” and “Overlapping,” can be used for preventing the misbehavior of other students. When one student is about instructkonal throw a paper airplane or punch his friend in the shoulder, the teacher can make eye contact with uacob and javob his head.

The belief is that doing this will show other students that they will not get away with this either. In Middle School, however, it usually becomes more necessary to make an example of a student who willingly breaks a rule so that other students know they will share the same fate if they do so as well.

Also, the “overlapping” ability to do more than one thing at once is essential, since most middle school students will capitalize on the opportunity to get away with outlawed behavior while the teacher’s back is turned. A final approach that seemed very effective was implementing lesson plans with high participation formats.

When every student always has something to do, each will not become bored and find off-task behavior to engage in. In a high school setting, a teacher needs to incorporate all of the aspects of Kounin’s philosophy in their teaching practice.

This means that with-it-ness, overlapping, smoothness, momentum, and group focus all must meld together to form a coherent whole. The “with-it-ness” that comes with being an effective teacher is most often the fruit of planning and keeps students on task. This takes a special ability to diffuse potentially distracting situations in which teachers need to bring students back to the task at hand.

In showing students the connections between one subject to the next, using previous vocabulary to prepare students for learning new vocabulary, a teacher will show overlapping.

This overlapping ties into the momentum aspect. Students that feel they are learning will make connections between old and new material. This confidence will allow them to contribute to the momentum of the classroom.

The group focus aspect in the high school setting really takes a quick attention to detail. This can be done through exciting announcements, demonstrations, or by changing the atmosphere of learning. Discipline and Group Management in Classrooms. From Wikibooks, open books for an open world.

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