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Skip to main content. Log In Sign Up. Creation and Covenant in Contemporary Theology: A Synthesis of the Principal Interpretative Keys.
Nova et Vetera, English Edition, Vol. This is by no means a new question, since it references perennial themes of theology, such as the relation between creation and salvation and also between the natural and the supernatural.
The novelty arises from the fact that now there is a desire to begin from a point of view that is more profoundly rooted in the sacred Scripture, to start from genuinely biblical concepts.
In the theological literature of the past decades—here I refer above all to handbooks and theological dictionaries—it is easy to find allusions, often brief ones, to this question. Nevertheless, one does not find works that seek to synthesize the principal theological motivations that have guided the understanding of this theme for the authors who have most systematically studied it.
Many reasons, besides the logical bibliographical updating, compel me to re- present this essay, not the least of which is the explicit mention Pope Benedict XVI made to this point in his Easter Vigil homily of 23 Aprilas well as the contin- uous reference in his teaching to the doctrine of creation.
In this article I offer a synthesis of its fifth and last chapter. I consider this to be by no means an exegetical problem; rather, it seems to me that by bringing to light this fundamental question, presuppositions and key theological implications philosophical as well are seen, as the recent history of treatises on creation and anthropology demonstrates.
In the following pages we propose, as a starting point for further considerations, a synthesis of the main interpretative keys for understand- ing the relation between creation and covenant that have been employed in contemporary theological reflection. We will seek to show that a meta- physical perspective, which is also necessary in theological discourse, provides fruitful assistance in harmonizing the demands of each interpre- tative key and that, after several decades of a certain estrangement, this metaphysical perspective has received a decisive endorsement from the encyclical Fides et ratio.
A Brief Presentation of the Origin and Development of the Question3 Creation in the Light of the History of Salvation and of the Covenant The coming together of the ideas of creation and covenant has its origin, as is commonly accepted, in a double context: In von Rad published an article that has since become highly influential and widely diffused.
In it he asked tologica about the origin and meaning of the Old Testament faith in creation. The call for a recovery of metaphysics, not only in the philosophical field, but also in the theological one, must be considered one of the main teachings of this pontifical document; cf.
Link, Die Welt als Gleichnis. Kaiser,96—; P. Eunsa,— Creation and Covenant von Rad concludes that the teolobica of the chosen people in God the Creator developed only as their knowledge of God the Savior deepened.
We found it invariably related, and indeed subordinated, to soteriological considerations.
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Creation has not been revealed in the Bible as a neutral concept, but rather as the beginning of the history of the Covenant, as a preparation for grace. To think of the Creation within the perspective of the faith, and therefore as directed towards the Covenant, supposes that one already considers the Creation to be a Christian event.
In this way, Creation is interpreted from Christ, thus offering a Christian protology based in the fact that Christ is both the origin and the end of Creation, as is inferred by biblical revelation. So it is that faith in the Creation is, above all, faith in salvation.
At the heart of these perspectives is the idea that the people of Israel and also the Church address the question of God not from a metaphys- ical perspective but rather from that of history and their encounter with 4 G. Explorations in Old Testament Theol- ogy, trans. Fortress Press,—86, here The Doctrine of Creation, trans.
For a synthesis, cf. Holt, Rinehart and Winston,—13; H.
This is consistent with the dialectical theology held by Barth: The infroduccion of Israel and Christians do not experience the God of the philosophers, but the God of history. Subse- quently, they served as a support for the process of renovating teologkca treatises on creation that began to take place in the middle of the twen- tieth century.
Jahrhundert, Band III, ed. Vander Gucht and H. Herder,36—62; C. Libreria Editrice Fiorentina, ; W. Grundriss heilsgeschichtlicher Dogmatik, vol. Benziger,—; J.
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Herder,—66; K. Schoonenberg, Covenant and Creation London: Creation and Covenant through a more decided assumption of Christocentrism. This has been the dominant line of thinking within Italian theology during the last decades, one that has struggled to develop an insight into the supernatu- ral from a Christological point of view. Based on the primacy of the covenant over the creation, this theology has proposed a significant change in introduccioon name of the treatise De Deo creante et elevante or rather De homine creato et elevatochanging it to De Deo elevante ideoque creante or, in its anthropological version, De homine elevato ideoque creato.
One of the most prominent was the German exegete Claus Teoolgica — who, before the subordination of the creation to the history of salvation election, covenantldaaria the independence of the Old Testament notion of creation.
Westermann has noted that the idea that all things originate from God was not unique to Israel but was shared with its surrounding world, as is revealed by an analysis of the myths and stories of the beginnings of nearby peoples. That the world and mankind had been created by a divine Being constituted a fundamental presupposition of their thinking, an accepted truth that was not subject to discussion. Thus the recognition of God as Creator does not depend upon the covenant or upon faith in a saving God, but rather precedes these ideas.
Saggio di protologia Leumann [Turin]: Elle Di Ci, We have to mention some pioneering voices as fore- runners of this handbook: Paoline,—; G.
Pacomio and others Turin: Marietti,— Fortress Press, orig. Westermann develops these ideas in other important and influential works, such as Genesis 1— Introoduccion Continental Commentary, trans. John Knox Press, orig.
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On the one hand, Moltmann and Pannenberg 12 For example in H. Fortress Press,— We find a criticism of both von Rad and Westermann antropologla B.
Fortress Press,—3 and — Simkins, Creator and Creation: Hendrickson Publishers,10; this important point is also found in some handbooks, such as D. Patmos,; and L. Cristiandad,32n Untersucht bei Deuterojesaja, Hiob und in den Psalmen Stuttgart: Monographien 3,; for all these ques- tions and more bibliographic resources, cf. Zenger, Als Anfang schuf Gott: Patmos,14— Creation and Covenant noted that, from the perspective of Barth, the notion of creation would be reduced to the past where it is only the beginning or preparation for the historical covenantwhile the genuine biblical notion of creation also includes the future plenitude of the new eschatological creation.
This is why a clearer critique, like the one realized among Protestants, was not made. Nevertheless, there have been several authors who have pointed out the risks of a complete absorption of creation into salvation history. Moltmann, God in Creation: An Ecological Doctrine of Creation, trans. SCM Press, ; W. Sanz, El futuro creador del Dios trinitario.
Labor et Fides, . Auer, Kleine Katholis- che Dogmatik. Friedrich Pustet, ; L. Cerf, ; A. Cerf, ; L. Paradoxically, what began as a source of renovation in creation theology sntropologia in a certain sense as a source of forgetting about creation itself, in favor of an anthropological concentration that solidified in the 70s. Over the past few decades this situa- tion has changed notably, thanks to various factors. The need has been felt for a decisive renovation of the faith in creation in the face of the margin- alization that it has suffered, not only in theology but also in the catechesis of itroduccion Church.
Patmos, ; J. Sal Terrae, ; and M.
Kehl, Und Gott sah, dass es gut war. Hendry, professor at Princeton, in a lecture held in April before the assembly of the American Society of Theology: Ratzinger, Introduction to Christianity, trans. Rahner, Foundations of Teologiac Faith: An Introduction to the Idea of Christianity, trans.
Darton, Longman and Todd, orig. Edusc,— Spaemann and others Weinheim: VCH,91—