The Kathaka Samhita, Books I and II. Edited by. Professor von Schroeder. Leipzig , and The fate of the K?tliaka Samhit? has been somewhat peculiar. Taittiriya Samhita; Maitrayani Samhita; Caraka-Kathaka Samhita the sacred fires. Just as the Samaveda-Samhita is the song-book of the Udgata priest, so the . LINKS. Taittiriya Samhita; Maitrayani Samhita; Caraka-Kathaka Samhita; Kapisthala-Katha Samhita. TAITTIRIYA SAMHITA. Krishna Yajurveda Samhitas.
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The Yajur Veda is one of the oldest books in the Vedas and arguably one of the oldest texts recorded in the world. The Yajur Veda is a Samhita, which is one of four sections of the Hindu holy scriptures which has the highest influence upon the lives of the Hindus Rai A Samhita is a collection of mantras, or hymns, most of which sing the praises of one or another personal god Prabhavananda Its origins are speculated to go as far back as B. It was not until a millennium later around B.
Textkritische Bemerkungen zur Kathaka-Samhita.
In the Rgveda itself the Yajurveda and the Samaveda are mentioned in a number of passages Saraswatileading to the assumption that these three Samhitas were around at the same time. The Vedas — Rg veda, Yajur veda, Sama veda and Atharva veda — are the first four of the pramanas authoritative texts of the religion and also the most important Saraswati In particular the Yajur Veda is referenced to and used by the Adhvarya priest Santucci The Vedas are regarded as sruti: The Vedas were received by visionaries rsi who saw with a special psychic perception the sacred mantras upon which they meditated and finally communicated in the form of the Vedas Cush, Robinson, York Dvaipayana known as Veda Vyasa the primordial sage in the second yuga compiled the Vedas after they were revealed to him Sharma 6, Rai 1.
Dvaipayana taught a Samhita to each of his many pupils over time Rai 1. The knowledge of the Yajur Veda was taught to one of his students named Vaisampayana Rai 1.
A rsi by the name of Yajnavalkya was a disciple of the great rsi Vaisampayana Prabhavananda After Vaisampayana had missed a very important council he was said to have sinned Prabhavananda In order to rid himself of his sin he ordered his disciples to do austerities Prabhavananda At this Vaisampayana grew angry, and said: I want no such hot-headed, egotistical disciple as you!
Give back what you have learned from me, and be off! So Yajnavalkya recited all he had learnt and departed from Vaisampayana Prabhavananda Now Yajnavalkya, having cast away his knowledge of the Vedas, felt empty and realized what kind of man he had become Prabhavananda Then it occurred to him that the sun-god never separated himself from the Vedas Prabhavananda Yajnavalkya accepted the sun-god as his master, and prayed to him for knowledge Prabhavananda The sun-god, pleased with the fervour of his new votary, answered his prayers Prabhavananda The sun-god taught Yajnavalkya and the teachings henceforth became known as the White Yajur Veda Prabhavananda The White Yajur Veda contains only the sacrificial formulae without any explanation to their uses in the rituals Santucci While the Black Yajur Kwthaka on the other hand oathaka an explanation and discussion of the sacrificial rites to which the formulae belong Santucci These explanations are called brahmanaswhich are written in prose style Jamison Because of the these differences and overall presentation of each recension, the White Yajur Veda is commonly known as clear asmhita precise in presentation Jamison Despite this major difference in the structure, the sacrifices that both the White and Black Yajur Vedas outline are almost identical Rai The Vajasenyi-Samhita exists in two very similar recensions, the Madhyamdina and the Kanva Jamison These two recensions are almost identical; the chief difference is in samhitta variance of the sacrificial formulae themselves Santucci Kathhaka four discuss the same subject matter, sometimes in identical or nearly identical language Santucci They are considered Samhitas and not recensions because of the differences in their brahmana portions, which take independent and in some cases opposing positions Jamison The brahmana proses of these texts are the oldest expository prose written in Sanskrit the ancient text in which the Vedas were writteneven older than the texts specifically called Brahmanas Jamison The White Yajur Veda has forty lectures adhyaya which are unequally subdivided into shorter sections kandikaeach of which has a prayer or mantra Rai Each of the forty lectures contains between thirteen and one hundred and seventeen sections Rai The Black Yajur Veda is divided into seven books astaka each containing anywhere from five to eight lectures adhyaya Rai Likewise each lecture is subdivided into sections with a total of six hundred and fifty sections Rai The most important feature of the Yajur Veda is that it supplies the formulae for the entire sacrificial ceremony Santucci The prose formulae and prayers are called yajus plural yajums ; the verses are called rc plural rces Winternitz There are two ways of performing the yajus ; one is by samhhita the prayer which is called yajus and the second is by speaking aloud the prayer which is called nigada Alper 6.
Within the formulae there are mantras associated with each ritual Sharma A mantra is understood by the tradition as a polyvalent instrument of power Alper 6. As for the sacrifice itself, the name that has been used for millennia is yajna Rodrigues The sacrifice, once performed, goes to the god which it is being performed for as a gift Oldenberg Through the rituals which humans perform, the gods can be manipulated to a certain extent Sutherland, Houlden, et al.
The sacrificing part of a yajna ceremony falls under the duty of the Adhvaryu priest Jamison The Adhvaryu by consulting the Black Yajur Veda receives a step-by-step procedure which goes down to the minutest of procedures Oldenberg 8. Not only does the Adhvarya perform the yajus but he also prepares the sacrificial grounds, the implements, and the oblations Jamison The priest performing the yajna hopes that it will have an effect on the mind of the god through awakening of his good will in favor of humans Oldenberg An example of this in Vedic lore is when the Vedic god Indra asks a man named Susravas to do a yajna and after he does as he is commanded, the god Indra loves Susravas for it Oldenberg The importance of precision cannot be overstated when performing a ritual Winternitcz If an act is not performed exactly as prescribed, a prayer, mantra or a melody sung wrong brings ruin to the performer Winternitz The center of the religious practice of the entire Aryan early Hindu people was the sacrificial rituals Sutherland, Houlden, et al.
The Yajur Veda holds some of the grandest and most important mantras and rituals in the Hindu religion Winternitz For instance, the Taittiriya-Samhita contains the Gayatri mantra four times Sharma Along with one of the grandest of all the yajna which is the asvamedha or horse-sacrifice Rodrigues An example of a section in the Taittiriya-Samhita is:.
The version of the Yajur Veda you will read may depend on where you are in the world Sharma Even though different recessions of the Yajur Veda are used in different areas, various mantras within the Yajur Veda should be known by all Brahmins Saraswati The Gayatri mantra Taittiriya Samhita 4. The Yajur Veda is seen as the most important of the four Vedas Kapoor Without the Yajur Veda one cannot understand the Brahmanas and without these, the Upanisads Winternitz The Yajur Veda is a complex and ancient text.
It is a text that has many intricacies and many versions to study from. It has been used since the time of the Aryans up until this day.
It is prominent now just as it was three thousand years ago. The essence of pleasing the gods and balancing the cosmos is brought out in the Yajur Veda through its rituals.
The Yajur Veda holds a special place in not only the Vedic canon but also to anyone who believes in the Vedas. References and Further Recommended Reading. Saraswati, Chandrasekharendra Hindu Dharma.
Yajurveda – Wikipedia
Bharatiya Vidya Bhavan Publishers. Winternitz, Maurice History of Indian Literature. An example of a section samhitta the Taittiriya-Samhita is: State University of New York Press. Oldenberg, Hermann The Religion of the Veda.
Rodrigues, Hilary Introducing Hinduism. Scholarly Resources for the Study of Hinduism.