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Search the history of over billion web pages on the Internet. Copyright,by International Textbook Company. Entered at Stationers’ Hall, London. Plate, Intersections and Developments: Copyright,ae International Textbook Com- pany.
Plate, Eccentric and Brake Lever: Plate, Steel Columns and Connections: Plate, Profiles of Gear Teeth: Plate, Spur Gear Wheels: Convricrht,bv The Colliery Engineer Company. Copvright,by The Colliery Engineer Company. Copyright,by The Colliery Engineer Company. Drawing Plate, Projections H.
Drawing Plate, Sections II. A drawing is a representation wbe objects on a plane surface by means of lines or lines and shades. The drawing board should be made of well-seasoned, straight-grained pine, kbba grain running lengthwise. For this Course, the student will need a board of the following dimensions: The drawing board illustrated in Fig.
It is made of several pieces of pine wood glued together to the required width of the board. A pair of hardwood cleats is screwed to the back of the board, the screws passing through the cleats in oblong slots with iron bushings, which allow the screws to move freely when drawn by the contraction and expansion of the board.
Grooves are cut through half the thickness of the board over the entire back side. In order to provide a per- fectly smooth working edge for the head of the T square to slide against 700219 strip of hard wood is let into the short edges Fig. When in use, the board is placed so that one of the short edges is at the left of the draftsman, as- shown in Fig. The T square is used for drawing horizontal straight lines. The head A is placed against the left-hand edge of the board, as shown in Fig.
The upper 770219 C of the blade B is brought very near to the point through which it is desired to pass a line, so that kva straight edge C of the blade may be used as a guide for the pen or pencil. It is evident that all lines drawn in this manner will be parallel. The tri- angles most generally used are shown in Kbq. The triangle shown in Fig. To draw a vertical line, place the T square in position to draw a hori- zontal line, and lay the tri- angle against it, so as to abr a right angle.
Hold both T square and triangle lightly with the left hand, so as to keep them from slipping, and draw the line with the pen aeb pencil held in the right hand, and against the edge of the triangle. For drawing parallel lines that are neither vertical nor horizontal, the simplest and kbz way, when the lines are near together, is to place one edge of a triangle, as ab, Fig.
The edge a I? Should the triangle A extend too far beyond the edge of the triangle B after a number of lines have been drawn, hold A stationary with the left hand and shift B along the edge of A with the right hand and then proceed as before.
Abr line may be drawn at right angles to another line which is neither vertical nor horizontal, as illustrated in Fig. Let c d be the given line shown at the left-hand side. Place one of the shorter oba, as a b, of the triangle B so that it will coincide with the line cd; then, keeping the triangle in this position, place the triangle A so that its long edge aeb come against the long edge of B.
Now, holding A securely in place with the left hand, slide B along the edge of A with the right hand, when the lines h i, jn n, etc. The dotted lines show the position of the triangle B when moved along the edge of A. The right-hand portion of Fig.
Let the side c doi the figure be given.
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Place the long side of the triangle B so as to coincide with the line c d, and bring the triangle A into position against the lower side of B, as shown. Noav, holding the triangle A in place with the left hand, revolve B so that its other short edge will rest against the long edge of yJ, as shown in the dotted position at i? The student should practice with his triangles before beginning drawing.
The compasses, next to the T square and triangles, are used more than any other instrument. A pencil and pen point are provided, as shown in Fig.
The other leg is fitted with a needle point, which acts as the center about which the circle is drawn. In all good 72019, the needle point itself is a separate piece of round steel wire, held in place in a socket provided at the end kga the leg. The wire should have a square shoulder at its lower end, below which a fine, needle-like point projects.
The length- ening bar, also shown in the figure, is used to extend the leg carrying the kbq and pencil points when circles of large radii are to be drawn. The joint at the top of the compasses should hold the legs firmly in any position, and at the same time should permit their being opened or closed with one hand. The joint may be tightened or loosened by means of a screwdriver or wrench, which accompanies the compasses. It will be noticed in Fig. The style of compasses shown in Fig.
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Another common style of joint is the pivot joint, in which the head of each leg is shaped like a disk and the two disks are held together in a fork-shaped brace either by means of two pivot screws or by one screw penetrating both disks. The following suggestions for handling the compasses should be carefully observed by those who are beginning the subject of mechanical drawing.
Any draftsman who handles his instruments awkwardly will create a bad impression, no matter how good a workman he may be. The tendency of all beginners is to use both hands for operating the com- passes. This is to be avoided. The student should learn at the start to open and close them with one hand, holding them as shown in Fig.
kb Another case where both hands should not be used is in locating the needle point at a point on the drawing about which the circle is to be drawn, unless the left hand is used merely to steady the needle point.
Hold the compasses as shown in Fig. This will steady the hand so that the needle point can be brought to exactly the right place on the qbe. Having placed the needle at the desired point, and with it still resting on the paper, the pen or pen- cil point may be moved out or in to any desired radius, as indicated in Fig.
When the lengthening bar 7029 used, both hands must be employed. The compasses must be handled in such a manner that the needle point will not dig large holes in the paper.
A slight pressure will be necessary on the pen or pencil point, dnt not on the needle point. The 700219, shown in Figs. The points of the dividers should be 7’ery sharp, so that they will not punch holes in the paper larger than is absolutely necessary to be seen. Compasses are sometimes furnished with two steel divider points, besides the pen and pencil points, so that the instrument may be used either as compasses or dividers.
This is the kind ilkistrated in Fig. When using the Fig. 702219 the line or circle does not space exactly, vary the distance between the divider points and try again; so continue until it 702199 spaced equally. When spacing in this manner, great care must be exercised not to press the divider points into the paper; for, if the points enter the paper, the spacing can never be accvirately done. The student should satisfy him- self of the truth of this statement by actual trial.
The “bow-pencil and boTv-pen, shown in Fig. The two points of the instruments must be adjusted to the same length; otherwise, very small circles cannot be drawn. DraTving P a j e r and Pencils. It takes ink well and with- kga considerable erasing.
The paper is secured to the drawing board by means of tliumbtacks. Four are usually sufficient — one at each corner of the sheet see Fig. Place a piece of paper on the drawing board, and press a thumbtack through one of the corners about – or f of an inch from each edge. Place the T square in position for drawing a horizontal line, as before explained, and straighten the paper so that its upper edge will be parallel to the edge of the T-square blade. Pull the corner diagonally op- posite that in which the thumbtack was placed, so as to stretch the kab slightly, and push in another thumb- tack.
Do the same with the remaining two corners.
Grind it to a sharp edge like a knife blade, and round the corners very slightly, as shown in the figure. If sharpened to a round point, as shown at B, the point will wear away very quickly and make broad lines; when so sharpened it is difficult to draw a line exactly through a point.
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The lead for the compasses should be sharpened in the same manner as the pencil, but should have its width narrower. Be sure tJiat the compass lead is ahe secured that when circles are struck in eitJier direction, but one line ivill be drawn zvith the same radius and center. It should be held ka nearly perpendicular to the board as possible, with the hand in the position Fig.
After a little practice, this position will become natural, and no difficulty will be experienced. The beginner will find that it is not always easy to make smooth lines.
If the pen is held so that only one blade bears on the paper when drawing, the line will almost inva- riably be ragged on the edge where the blade does not bear. When held at right angles to the paper, as in Fig. The pen must not be pressed against the edge of the T square or triangle, as the blades will then close together, making the line uneven.
The edge should serve as a guide simply. In both the ruling pen and compass pen, the width of the lines can be altered by means of the screw which holds the blades together.
The handles of most ruling pens can be unscrewed, and are provided with a needle point intended for use when copying maps by pricking through the bka and the underlying paper, thus locating a series of points through which the outline may be drawn. A quill is attached to the cork of every bottle of this ink, by means of which the pen may be filled.